The norms in Teaching English by Using “Asaliyah Edet Si Opat”


 (study the Gayonese’s culture)

 (Joni MN, Aman Rima)


A. Introduction

This paper addresses the challenges and constraints in the implementation of training and development programs with regard to professional ethics in teaching in large education systems, abjectly, here by Gayonese culture education system.  The scope of the training and development challenge is revealed by posing a series of questions. Some of these questions go the heart of the professional learning discourse. The use of case studies as a professional learning strategy is explored and examples of cases are included.  The education is very nearer with the culture which is a part of our context reality for guidance of our life in the world. We (Teachers) cannot teach a language without coming to grips with its culture contents cause of norms value is in individual’s intuitive side.

When the language is taught for its educational value, understand cultural content is much more important[1].  For example, if teach the Gayo Language forms but refer to another place culture meanings, values, and pattern of behaviors, we are not fully teaching of Gayo Language but have to introduce of the culture content its self too, cause of both of them cannot be separated each other. Culture as the container of the norm then the language as the tool to send the message about what we mean and sense to tell.

Phenix (1958:40), stated, that : “It possible to conceive of teacher and student as one and same person and the self taught person as one who direct his own development through an internal interaction between the self as I and the self as me on the other hand, it is usual for one teacher to teach many students simultaneously. In that even the quality of the interaction may become generalized and impersonal, or it may, by appropriate means, retain its person to person character.

B. English Language Principle

English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of North Umbria. Following the economic, political, military, scientific, cultural, and colonial influence of Great Britain and the United Kingdom from the 18th century, via the British Empire, and of the United States since the mid-20th century, it has been widely dispersed around the world, become the leading language of international discourse, and has acquired use as lingua franca in many regions.[2].

Language education is the teaching and learning of a language and culture go together. It can include improving a learner’s mastery of her or his native language, but the term is more commonly used with regard to second language acquisition, which means the learning of a foreign or second language and which is the topic of this article. Some scholars differentiate between acquisition and learning. Language education is a branch of applied linguistics.

People need to learn a second language because of globalization; connections are becoming inevitable among nations, states and organizations which create a huge need for knowing another language or more multilingualism.  Language education may take place as a general school subject or in a specialized language school. There are many methods of teaching languages. Some have fallen into relative obscurity and others are widely used; still others have a small following, but offer useful insights.

While sometimes confused, the terms “approach”, “method” and “technique” are hierarchical concepts. An approach is a set of correlative assumptions about the nature of language and language learning, but does not involve procedure or provide any details about how such assumptions should translate into the classroom setting. Such can be related to second language acquisition theory.

In the early stages of teaching language, the ordering of material decided on the basis of language structure, because this is primary learning burden. One can not grade assignments on the basis of language and systematically cover the culture as well. Introduce cultural content as needed to make the language material meaningful and to avoid misinformation.  When a word or expression must be taught that differs in cultural content from the roughly equivalent term in the native language, explain its meaning as cultural note or an aside without going into the entire structure of the culture.

C. Teaching

Teaching is an addresses generic aspect of curriculum, instruction and assessment, as well as classroom organization and management practices that support effective instruction[3]. It focuses on learning outcomes but with recognition of the need for a supportive classroom climate and positive student attitudes towards schooling, teachers and classmates.

  1. Teaching or Educate purpose generally, teaching function is for achieving of educating the people or societies to be good moral and norms.

Natural learning environments inspire a burning desire to learn, the key to a productive lifestyle, Education is; knowledge in basic skills, academics, technical, discipline, citizenship.  What can be considered a quality education? A quality education is custom designed that address the unique abilities of each student. Custom education evaluates natural talent and how student learns’. This is why home schooled students out perform classroom students. Parents learn what works and does not work, then focus on what works. With this method, students develop a love to learn and learning becomes a lifelong process.[4].

2. Teaching or Education in Indonesia Government is; In the National Education System established by the laws of the Republic of Indonesia, Law No. 2 of 1989 and decided on March 27, 1989. Chapter I General Provisions, Article 1, In this Act referred to as: (1). Education is a conscious effort to prepare students through counseling, teaching, and / or training for their role in the future, (2). National education is education that is rooted in the culture of the Indonesian nation based on the five Principles of Indonesia and the Constitution of 1945.[5].

3.  Education or Teaching in Aceh Law Perspective, Article 8, (1) Education in the Region was held in accordance with the National Education System. (2) Regional develop and manage various types, pathways, and levels of education and increase local content material in accordance with Islamic Shari’ah. (3) develop and manage the Regional Institute of Islamic Education for the adherents of various types, pathways, and levels of education [6].

4.  Education or Teaching according to Educator and as the Traditional People wants, in Aceh Tengah; According to the Traditional Leaders and Education of Tanoh Gayo, Drs Tgk.H. Mahmud Ibrahim (interviewed,  November 24th, 2010, said Education in Gayo Highlands should not be separated from the purpose of the National Teaching and Education based on five principles of Indonesia and should bring the values in existence system of Gayo culture that is in accordance with the shari’ah which is run-on by Edet (custom), because in Gayo adopted a very strong traditional systems, such as those found in their philosophy “Edet urum Agama lagu Zet urum Sifet” (the Customs  with Religion nearby like substance with properties).

According to the author the purpose of the Education and Teaching at the School are: The concept of education as a means to humanize people in achieving the goal of human life itself later. In this process, student’s control of the target language is obviously inadequate in the early stages for attempt at systematic treatment of cultural content through it.  Once some control of the language has been achieved, cultural content may be learned through the target language in systematic and more comprehensive assignment.  And Education as social symptom of life have the individual base, social and cultural.

D. Culture Content

Culture learning is the process of acquiring the culture-specific and culture- general knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for effective communication and interaction with individuals from other cultures. It is a dynamic, developmental, and ongoing process which engages the learner cognitively, behaviorally, and affectively[7].

Culture by the author comes from the word Budi and Power, which refers Budi Spiritual direction, and the Power refers to the mind or intellect of man who adopted him. The reason, culture is born of the Copyright, Pain, and Man Efforts. If translated Creating; Science (Knowledge), Rasa; itself enters the domains of Philosophy, and Creating; this explains into the realm of willingness, which includes aspects – Idealism, motivation, and creativity of the human being. In a society in the association, state association live up to international level in need of a system that governs how humans should interact. Regulatory system interaction and mutual respect became known as courtesy, etiquette, protocol and others.

I mean no other association guidelines to safeguard the interests of each involved them happy, calm, peaceful, without harming their interests are protected and secured for his actions being executed in accordance with the prevailing customs and do not conflict with human rights generally. That is what underlies the growth of ethics in our society. Mind; derived from derivatives Budi, and affirm the spiritual formation, which is in the study Spiritual. And resources, refer into the realm of thinking that will produce Intellectualities the wearer.

E. Teacher in language Teaching concept  

In Gayo high land always follow the Gayonese’s customs and cultural traditions Values Education be able to establish norms of learners, as found in the discussion of “Indigenous Origin of Four”  “Asaliyah Edet Si Opat[8] or which explains that the custom has become the main of customs and Gayonese’s culture itself, in the main traditional explained that the customary of Gayo society (urang Gayo) should follow to:

  1. Edettulah; it’s means, the customary held always and always be endeavored not contrary to Islamic teachings, which explain the rules and social norms, dress, deal with parents, talking, walking, welcoming guests, how to deal with the Prayer (Tengku) / Teachers, etc.
  2. Edetmuhakamah; this means, the custom is customary deliberation in society and the environment both formal and non-school or In Formal. In this tradition asserts that among community members and educators are also learners in order to have a responsible attitude and not to pit each other among them.
  3. Edet Mutmainah; this means, the customary explain or confirm that, solidarity, humanity, etc. are very necessary in this life in order to live, and are strongly encouraged to also knows about thanks-for-giving in favors gratefulness.
  4. Resam Edet; this means, confirms the customary norms interact in everyday life. It is often applied when carrying out activities that follow the existing norms.Simak


According to author state that an area there is anything in specific as which are basically related to the natural environment, socio-economic environment, and socio-cultural environment. And the area needs is anything that is needed by the community in an area, especially for the survival and increased standards of public life, which is adjusted with the direction of regional development as well as potential areas concerned[9].

From the statement above is about culture and education, the relationship of culture and education in my opinion is between culture and education that have a very very closed and not be separated because the views from the definition of both culture and education. Can take the conclusion that the role of education in recognizing that culture is very important because through the process of human education could be known and know in depth the meaning and role of culture in human life. In addition, through the education process humans can also distinguish a good culture that can be run and a culture that is not good to be abandoned.

In cultural relations and educational surely just have to involve language that mediates / street or as a means to give an explanation, a deep understanding of culture in the process of educational specifically, the language has an important role in human relationships in interacting with other people in a social context . Because in the language it contains the values of high culture that reflects the behavior of its parole and habits influence their personality values in education. And vice versa culture and education has an enormous influence on the language culture is a reflection behavior speakers of the language. Through interaction with others in social and educational context is the link process of cultural understanding and recognition of good language used by speakers.

E. Conclusion

From the above, indicate that the language and Gayonese culture are very important role in human life over again in the educational environment because of language and its culture is an integral tool for inter-ethnic and different skin color, language and Gayonese cultural differences for the various tribes in this world to know and understand each not to cause strife, from the knower each other for the man who would know the various scientific and mutual understanding will be attitude and character. The accuracy in using language is to determine the success of the communication process, is expected for parole understand the realities of context, such as knowing his interlocutors, different ages and functions. Examples of Gayo plateau.

Teachers create the conditions and situations that allow students to form the meaning of learning materials through a learning process and store them in memory at any time can be processed and further developed (Piaget, 1952 & 1960; Freire, 1970). And then the Students actively construct knowledge. Learning is an activity undertaken by students, not something done to students. Students do not receive knowledge from the teacher or curriculum passively. Schemata theory explains that students activate their cognitive structures and build new structures to accommodate the input of new knowledge (Anderson & Armbruster, 1982; Piaget, 1952 & 1960). Thus, the preparation of continuous knowledge of participants who place students as active. An educational activity is a social process that cannot happen without personal interaction. Learning is a personal process, but also social that occurs when people touch each other and build understanding and shared knowledge (Johnson, Johnson & Smith, 1991).

Language is one of the systems created by the human mind at the time in interaction, with language, humans can interact in order to communicate with fellow human beings in communication within a community is created when the already have an agreement in a language within the community itself, the language will not be able agreement and understandable if those communities do not exist. In Gayonese culture the Language is one of the cultural products of the human mind is the result of the speaker itself. Linguistics has not been so perfect if not cooperating with the Science Education Language, when science runs its own language, just by knowing the order of language itself without any weight of the contents of that language then the language that created just the interaction and communication that do not have values and norms, not even going to touch the sense or feeling someone is listening.

In creating a good and polite language to communicate we must consider three things: 1. Purpose we use language to communicate, 2. To or with whom, in which we communicate, 3. Order a word that will be used as a sentence, in this case does not mean fully Grammar of that language but the words are arranged to be able to make the listener’s mood calm and happy. And I need to know to succeed in their interaction by using language with Gayonese culture that is; first of the social culture of its speakers and Religion, because both of these is a pattern which is a measure of stylistic assessment of a community or individual address.


[1] Robert Lado,  Language Teaching – a Scientific Approach, McGraw-Hill, Inc. San Francisco Toronto London, 1964.p.149.

[2]Halliday, MAK,  English language . An introduction to functional grammar (2nd ed.). London: Edward Arnold. ISBN 0-340-55782-6. (1994)

[3] Jere Brophy,  IBE joined UNESCO as an integral, International Academy Of Education International Bureau Of Education Teaching. The International Bureau of Education–IBE and UNESCO. 1969. p. 6.

[4] Robert L. ” Motivation Tool Chest”, Webb Goose Creek, South Carolina 29445 USA. 2009

[5] Bidang DIKBUD KBRI Tokyo, Undang-Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional.

[6] Presiden Republik Indonesia, UU Penyelenggaraan Keistimewaan Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Aceh, UU 44/1999

[7] Allen, W., & Fouletier-Smith, N. Culture Learning in Language Education: A Review of the Literature  . (1994).  Parallels. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

[8] A.R. Hakim Aman Pinan, “Hakikat Nilai-Nilai Budaya Gayo (Aceh Tengah).CV.Rima Utama. Banda Aceh:1998: hal.95 .p. 43-47

[9] Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Badan Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Pendidikan Nasional Pusat Kurikulum” Model  Pengembangan Mata Pelajaran Muatan Lokal” Jakarta Desember 2006: hal.2



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